'Judicial Review in Japan: A Limited Mechanism or an Agent of Democratization', by Sigal Ben Rafael Galanty, Israel.
In this paper, we focus on democratic Japan (from 1945 onwards) and the adaptation to the mechanism of judicial review by its public. Through this case we hope to shed light on the existence of the non-Western democratization model. Furthermore, there is an attempt to argue that the development of a civic culture following the uptake of democratic structures is possible - and can even happen when these structures are limited. All in all, the attitudes towards judicial review may bring us to the conclusion that adopting democratic organs can encourage a dynamic of democratization of the political behavior and most of all – they may serve as an engine for the internalization of a civic culture. Hence we will show that however restricted they may be, the adoption of democratic mechanisms in Japan has been a catalyst for developing a civil culture, and still is. It supports those theories considering Japan a liberal democracy and confirms the non-Western democratization model.
Keywords: Japanese democracy – judicial review – democratization model – liberal values
'Political Cultural Dimensions of Indian Democracy in the Era of Globalization', by S. Patagundi, India.
Globalisation influences the process of political socialization. This study is an attempt to understand the relation between political culture and the working of Indian democracy in the era of globalization. This involves the study of democratic culture, mass and elite political culture, social justice as a value of the Indian society, destruction of local culture and growth of populist culture. We will discuss how these are manifested in the working of Indian democracy. Political culture comes into operation at the time of elections and is manifested in various forms such as opposition or support to a specific political party or group of parties. It is generally found that globalisation has a significant bearing on people’s thinking about politics. A major finding of this study is that globalisation has a very significant bearing on the process of the modification of the Indian political culture reflecting it in the working of the Indian democracy.
Keywords: Globalisation – political socialization – Indian democracy – political culture
'Public Service Broadcasting as a Medium of Political Socialization: Quo Vadis?', by Julia Rozanova, Canada.
Recent years have witnessed rising concern about the future of democracy, and the decline of public service broadcasting (PSB) has been named among the challenges. In a global move to neo-liberalism, the territory belonging to public service broadcasting is shrinking with less government investment. Drawing on the Western and Russian research data about the transformation of PSB, this paper will challenge the libertarian critique of PSB as a medium of political socialization from the Right, which asserts that proliferation of information channels eliminated the need for PSB, and that an individual needs to be left on her own to “freely” process the abundant information. It will also revisit the critique of PSB as a medium of political socialization from the Left, which points out that being in control of PSB, the bourgeois state cannot with necessity ensure that it truly serves the public interest, and moreover, PSB may potentially be a hegemonic tool for ideological control by the state. Bringing in the experience of the Russian TV system this paper will add a new dimension to the study of media as an instrument of political socialization and its implications for democracy.
Keywords: Television – democracy – public sphere – political socialization
'New Forms of Subjectivation and Political Socialization Facing New Contents and Forms of Governance in Education Systems. Some Preliminary Comparative Elements from the English and the French Cases', by Olivier Giraud, France/Germany.
This article analyses the emerging tensions in education systems in the context of globalisation. Based on empirical research comparing the cases of England and France, it draws attention on the implications of both the transformation and diversification of subjectivation and political socialisation modes in contemporary societies and of the transformation of the education contents and governance forms in these both countries. Departing from very different starting positions, the trajectories of both regimes are in some way converging as they both combine local/regional forms of steering and also combine hierarchy and network forms of steering. In England, the trajectory of the system towards more centralization implies more hierarchy and mandatory instruments in education than in the French case. In none of the countries examined here however, there seem to be a clear and general movement towards an explicit opening of the governance model of schools to new possible sources of socialization typical of the globalization age.
Keywords: Globalisation – education – socialization – governance
'The Beginnings of Democratic Citizenship: Value Orientations of Young Children', by Simone Abendschön, Germany.
Democracy rests upon the political involvement of its citizens. Within the last couple of years, there has been increasing demands for the inclusion of children – the youngest citizens – in this democratic decision-making process. Since values, from a young age, presumably play a central role in the process of democratic development, this paper will focus on the value orientations of children: Can we detect a consistent structure of value orientations at a young age or are these notions characterized by arbitrariness? The analyses of attitudes of children, ages six to seven year old, concerning socially desirable behavior could show that at the beginning of their school career, young children already do indeed hold clearly structured value orientations. This structure does undergo changes within the socialization context of school, however. With regard to the children’s “level” of value endowment, it has been found that the socialization context of school had an overall positive effect on the evolution of the level of children’s value orientations. Nevertheless, achievement differences between subgroups at the beginning of the first school year have been discovered, which could not be compensated for by school influences.
Keywords: Political Socialization – Early Childhood – Value Orientations
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