'From the society of real socialism to a market society: Changes in the value system of the Polish society'
Urszula Swadzba (Poland)
The article addresses the problem of changes in the system of three basic values in the Polish society: work, family and religion. First, it defines the concept of value and after a short presentation of different theories of value, adopts an adequate definition for the scope of analysis. Then, on the basis of Polish sociologists and their research, it shows the changes in these three values from the end of the 50s up until modern times. These changes are divided into four periods: 1) the end of the 50s and the 60s. 2) the 70s. 3) the 80s. 4) the period of transformation (from the beginning of the 90s). The division is dependent on major political events in Poland, and economic changes that have affected the system of values. In the analysis the empirical studies are included. They were taken by Polish sociologists involved in the system of values, especially work, religion and family. The value of work, which in particular declined in the period of real socialism and increased in the nineties. In the conclusion the author builds a model of changes in the system of values of Poles.
Keywords: change – values – work – family – religion – Polish society
'Visual propaganda of the Taliban: A combination of camera framing, metaphors, colors and symbols of nature'
Allison Luyckx & Lieuwe Kalkhoven (Belgium)
The Taliban is known as a terrorist organization which has been held responsible for a lot of attacks in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Waziristan, and other places in the world. An analysis of 97 propagandist videos enables us to take a closer look at the (visual) propaganda techniques they use. The results show that the Taliban is indeed an active propaganda machine. In order to enhance the complex organization structure the Taliban uses many different media organizations to create and spread the propaganda videos. When they address their opponents, they use a lot of metaphors and the use of different camera framings and camera angles underlines their images of the own group organization and the opponents. Using variables from previous research on propaganda analysis, a complete variable list will be analyzed in terms of visual terrorist propaganda.
Keywords: Taliban – terrorism – visual propaganda – communication strategy
'The Narrative Approach: Dostoevsky´s Grand Inquisitor as Classical Text for Civic Education'
Ingo Juchler (Germany)
Although teachers typically use textbooks in civic education, the narrative approach relies on stories as primary instructional materials. Fyodor Dostoevsky’s The Grand Inquisitor is a classic and exemplary story for teaching civic education. The parable in The Grand Inquisitor addresses a broad range of themes, including freedom, equality and the opportunities and limits of both; human rights; the political instrumentalisation of religion; and the dignity of humanity. Dostoevsky presents a vision of how freedom can be abolished and how absolute despotism can be established, all in the name of equality. Although the story is situated in the historical context prior to Russia’s Bolshevist October Revolution and the subsequent establishment of the so-called dictatorship of the proletariat, these themes all remain highly significant issues in contemporary Western and non-Western politics. Furthermore, The Grand Inquisitor facilitates interdisciplinary approaches in upper secondary classes and university courses.
Civic education – narrative approach – Dostoevsky – Grand Inquisitor – political instrumentalisation of religion – values – freedom – equality – human rights
'Schools and democratic socialization: Assessing the impact of different educational settings on swedish 14-year olds’ political citizenship'
Joakim Ekman & Pär Zetterberg (Sweden)
This article investigates the role of schools in fostering political citizens – i.e. providing them with the competencies and skills needed to realize their status as political actors in a democratic society. We pay attention to three dimensions of political citizenship: internal political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation. Drawing on the Swedish part of the 2009 International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS), we analyze the impact of four school-related factors on the development of the political citizenship of 3,464 Swedish 14-year olds. The student information is paired with school data (a school questionnaire), in order to assess the effect of different school contexts; and we have access to official statistics (census data) which provides us with reliable information about the socioeconomic status of the students. The analysis demonstrates that there is only one school factor that seems to have a distinct impact on the development of the political citizenship of 14-year olds: the socioeconomic embeddedness of the school. As a result, the article suggests that the development of political citizenship is determined less by what goes on in the classroom and more by the composition of the students that populate a school.
Keywords:political socialization – civic education – political citizenship – school – ICCS – Sweden
'Political socialization among young people: Evidence from a two-year panel study'
Ellen Quintelier (Belgium)
It is general knowledge that some groups of people (men, higher educated, citizens) are more likely to participate in politics than others (women, lower educated, non-citizens). On the other hand, there is not much knowledge why some groups are less likely to participate, already at a young age. Therefore, this article aims to investigate to which extent political socialization agents (parents, peers, media, voluntary associations and school) explain the differences between these groups. Using the data from the Belgian Political Panel Survey 2006-2008, it is tested to which extent political socialization effects differ. First, it is proven that political socialization agents do have a significant effect on political participation. Second, the results indicate that it is not the effect of the political socialization agents that differ between different groups of young people.
Keywords: Political participation – political socialization agents – youth – panel data
Back to Table of contents