'Choosing the Mountains: The PKK as alternative knowledge and identity project', by Kariane Westrheim, Norway
This article investigates the PKK movement from an educational perspective. During the past twenty five years, thousands of Kurdish youth have been gravitating to the PKK, and struggled in what is termed the 29th Kurdish uprising. The PKK define itself as an educational revolution. Since its foundation in the seventies, the armed struggle gradually has adopted the characteristics of a political and social movement. The article is based on a qualitative study that reveals which perspectives on knowledge and personal development participation in the PKK (Kurdistan Workers Party) fosters. Through transformation of knowledge and personality the cadres have become aware of their identity, social and political situation, something that created a feeling of dignity and confidence.
Keywords: PKK – Kurdish identity – social movements – education and knowledge
'Making sense of Political Participation. A qualitative study of Norwegian adolescents', by Kjetil Børhaug, Norway
The topic for this article is how adolescents find political participation meaningful. Sixteen 17 year old Norwegian students were interviewed about political participation and what could make such participation meaningful for them. The students had surprisingly traditional ideas on political participation. Their understanding was mainly in line with conventional representative, competitive elite democracy. This model sufficed to make them see political participation as intelligible and they all expected to be moderately politically active later on.
Key words: Political participation – adolescents – political education – Norway – secondary education
'The Rise and Fall of the "Private" as part of Western Political Socialization', by Andrew M. Koch & Amanda Gail Zeddy, USA
The private is a sphere of activity that is not subject to the regulations, control, and management by a sovereign, institutional power. This work will seek to identify some of the major historical factors affecting the balance between the public and the private in Western culture. We will examining the material conditions that gave rise to the primacy of collective power in medieval thought, through the rise of liberalism and capitalism as historical phenomena that generated support for the notion of the private, and modern liberal political culture reconstructed the notion of human subjectivity in a form that reflected the necessities of the new institutional practices as will be illustrated by the ideas of John Locke and Adam Smith. Then we will identify three forces that are eroding the liberal notion of privacy in the contemporary age: the growth of religious fundamentalism, the rise of the national security state, and the technological transformation of social, economic, life.
Keywords: Private sphere – public sphere – identity – liberal ideology – capitalism
'Public Action and Political Socialization. The Parents faced with the Educational Policy in France', by M. Lorenzo Barrault, France
In France, the school map is an educational policy which defines the catchment areas of State schools according to the families’ place of residence. A located analysis (ethnographic observations, approximately 150 in-depth interviews, files, etc.) allows us to question the processes of political socialization of the parents in work around the implementation of this public policy. In certain contexts, some parents try to adapt themselves to the division into sectors and even to influence public policy for stakes concerning their children. Their political socialization occurs principally through informal debates and individual or collective mobilizations (associations, partnerships of parents, demonstrations, etc.), to try to get round the constraints of this policy. This example shows the action of the State in the politicization or depoliticization of citizens.
Key words: Political socialization – school – public action – skills – discussions – politicization – mobilization – education – know-how
'The Ideal Mayor Seen Through The Eyes Of Children', by Philippe De Vries, Christ'l De Landtsheer, Wannes Heirman & Kim Boudiny, Belgium
This article is a first step in the theory building of children’s political impression formation, a practically virgin territory. It argues that children’s perception of political demeanour contains more outspoken and stereotypical characteristics than the determinants that are found for adults. Children therefore, can provide us with a considerable amount of objective and innocent information when it comes to the determinants of political demeanour. From this Belgian case can be concluded that there is a real gender gap in the political perception by children. Two empirical studies centred around the children’s “ideal mayor” reveal how children’s political impressions emerge and materialize in their works of art. In the first, experimental study 223 children younger than nine years of age compose with various materials the appearance of their ideal mayor. The second study concerns a content analysis based upon a drawing contest survey among 176 children with a majority of older than nine year olds. It can be concluded from both studies that whereas the male mayor that emerges from the boys’ works of art confirms the traditional and formal stereotype of ‘the mayor’, the female colleague that is revealed by the girls’ work appears to be a colourful, modern woman. The gender of the child seems to be reflected in both the gender and appearance of the ideal mayor.
Keywords: children’s drawings - ideal mayor - perception politics - political education
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