RC 21



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Abstract and Keywords 'Politics, Culture and Socialization' vol. 2, nr. 4

'Research on Political Socialization in China since 1982: Literature Review'
Song Yingfa (PR China)

Political socialization research in China began in the early time of the reform and opening-up in 1982. Based on Chinese literature in the field from 1982 to now, this paper reviews the development process of China's political socialization research, analyses the topics of political socialization research, summarizes the characteristics of China's political socialization research, points out the existing problems in academic research, and looks forward to the development of future research path.

Keywords: political socialization research – China – literature review

'Comparing socialization, cultural and individual level effects on attitudes towards nuclear energy – A multilevel analysis of 27 European countries'
Sebastian Jäckle & Rafael Bauschke (Germany)

Despite visible cross-country variation in survey data on attitudes towards nuclear power in Europe, studies of nuclear risk perception have predominantly related peoples’ attitudes to individual level factors. To account for the variance at the country-level, multilevel regression analysis, allowing for the integration of both individual and aggregate level factors, is proposed as a more fitting tool. Our model analyzes data from a 2008 Eurobarometer Special Issue on attitudes to nuclear energy. Apart from socio-demographic factors, geographic distance to the nearest nuclear power plant, knowledge concerning nuclear issues, trust in official sources as well as self-placement on a political scale show influences on attitudes towards nuclear energy at the individual level. At a country level, dependence on foreign energy sources and the electricity price do not prove significant, while socio-cultural factors, political socialization through Green parties and a familiarity effect are particularly important. The results suggest that the integration of aggregate level factors may help to develop a more complete understanding of public perceptions and of the effects of culture and socialization on attitudes.

Keywords: Nuclear energy – socialization – multi-level-analysis – Europe – risk perceptions

'Consistency of Tolerance, Public Opinion on Immigrants in the Netherlands at the Turn of the Millennium'
Louk Hagendoorn & Edwin Poppe (The Netherlands)

In this paper we examine whether people in the Netherlands are consistently tolerant towards culturally different immigrant groups using data of a representative national survey of 1998. Tolerance is defined as respecting the choices of others, even those one finds personally undesirable or objectionable. It appears that between 40 and 50 percent of the Dutch population is tolerant and their tolerance is remarkably consistent. They respect deviant gender and parent-child relations among immigrants. They reject right-wing extremists, but respect the social and political liberties of extremists. Furthermore, they are not prejudiced, do not distance themselves from immigrants, and grant them equal rights. They endorse individual freedom and resist attempts to close the national ranks against immigrants. In almost all these respects tolerant people differ from intolerant people, with the exception of one factor: the tolerant are skeptical of the immigrants’ true political loyalty to the Netherlands.

Keywords: tolerance – consistency of political beliefs – the Netherlands

'Pathways to political efficacy – Theoretical considerations and empirical illustrations on youths’ acquisition of political efficacy'
Sofia Sohl (Sweden)

By scrutinizing previous research, I offer a merger of the two research disciplines concerning the concept of political efficacy, i.e. the perception held by individuals of their own abilities to execute actions aimed at producing a change in society. Four pathways for how political efficacy develops, building on the merged perspective, are then tested in a single two-step hierarchical OLS regression. The results show that mastery experiences, role models, encouragement, and empowering outlooks in a political setting are predictors of youths’ political efficacy, over and above the effects of political interest and perceived political knowledge. This study contributes to theorizing about the development of political efficacy by discussing understanding of the concept, with input from both political science and psychology, and by empirically testing an existing multidisciplinary theory

Keywords: political efficacy – youth – development – political socialization – psychopolitical factors

'Does Globalization Broaden The Mind? The impact of Globalization on attitudes towards immigrant-rights of young adolescents in 35 regions'
Dimokritos Kavadias, Patrick Stouthuysen, Britt Dehertogh & Eva Franck (Belgium)

Globalization extends the areas of interaction between people of different origins. According to Allport's contact theory (1958), intergroup contacts can reduce prejudices and negative attitudes towards foreigners. In this paper we focus on the impact of globalization (Dreher’s Index, 2007) on the openness towards immigrants, using multilevel models on the ICCS 2009 data (35 countries). There is a negative relation between globalization and the attitudes of adolescents towards immigrant rights. At the local classroom level the presence of non-natives seems to stimulate a positive attitude. Globalization is a multidimensional process that engenders different consequences at different levels.

Keywords: prejudice – xenophobia – Allport – globalization index – ICCS

'History Teaching On Trial - Case no. 240743: “Israelis versus Teaching History in the State of Israel”, 1212.’
Ruth Firer (Isreal)

In this mock trial, "Case no. 240743: Israelis Versus Teaching History in the State of Israel,” the Prosecution and Defense present their closing arguments concerning the current state of teaching history in Israel. Both counsel rely mainly on the Israeli millennium history textbooks and State Curricula (ibid, C) and compare them to earlier ones in order to demonstrate their arguments. The Prosecution claims that despite changes, history manuals and the Ministry of Education C and guidance remain “Agents of Zionist Education” which sabotage the intellectual development of students through “soft indoctrination (R.F. – molding of opinions in democracies.) The Defense argues that a national history education is a basic collective right which in no way opposes other human rights or pedagogical goals in the State of Israel.
Both counsel focus on the following major issues:
1. To cover or to discover? How does a description of the historical past relate to current issues, problems and controversies? When does such historical description have to represent the formal State’s version of history? Should historical description necessarily include historical "Truth" of the States enemies? Meaning: “Us” vis-ŕ-vis “Others”.
2. To preach or to teach? Is there a contradiction between "history education" based on heritage and "history teaching" based on data? How do the conflicts between collective rights and individual rights of children influence history teaching?
The Prosecution and the Defense refer to the descriptive text and to the proto text on the various levels of explicit, implicit and null discourse (“black holes”). The two contradictory opinions represent the clash between left and right in Israel concerning the "soft indoctrination" of the future Israeli citizens. Thus, the differences between "teaching history" and "history education" influence the Israeli Palestinian conflict, the Religious Secular dispute, and the problems of the Israeli welfare system. While this mock trial concerns the teaching of history in the State of Israel, the issues discussed in it are highly relevant to other democratic states which struggle to reach equilibrium between values of human rights and the needs of the state.

Keywords: Mock trail – history teaching – history education – soft indoctrination – Pure arms – The Threat - Her-story

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Content: Christ'l De Landtsheer
: Ganna Diedkova
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