'On cross-national variation in the correlation between authoritarianism and social dominance orientation', by Sabrina de Regt, Tim Smits & Dimitri Mortelmans, Belgium
In this article, empirical evidence on cross-national variation in the authoritarianism–social dominance orientation (SDO) association has been provided. Authoritarianism and SDO measures were derived from the existing European Values Study (EVS) data. In the first study, it has been shown that the new EVS measures correlate substantially with the scales normally used to measure the constructs, that the scales have adequate levels of internal consistency, and that the EVS measures have comparable relations with external variables similar to the scales usually employed. In the second study, the authoritarianism–SDO association has been shown for twenty-eight European countries. For many of these countries, no information on this association was available until today. It has been shown that not only the magnitude of this relationship differs between countries but more noticeably the direction of this association also. In East European countries, negative relationships between authoritarianism and SDO have been found while in other European countries this relationship has been found to be positive.
Keywords: Authoritarianism – Social Dominance Orientation – European Values Study – Scale validation – Cross-national research
'Facilitating Dissent: The Ethical Implications of Political Organizing via Social Media', by Brian J. Bowe & Robin Blom, USA
Social media are often perceived as a frivolous space for youths to connect socially. But youths who live in countries where free expression is curtailed and official news outlets are subject to government censorship, information and communication technology (ICT) offers an increasingly important vehicle for political expression. In many cases, blogging and social media tools fulfill the role that journalism serves in more democratic societies. This article considers recent events in Iran, Egypt, China, and Myanmar, among other countries, and how Western information/social network corporations facilitate dissent. It also considers the ethical implications for doing so when there are negotiations with authoritative regimes, and the risks to the youthful communities that are at the receiving end of the consequences of these policies.
Keywords: social media – political organization – ethics – networks – freedom
'Playing Politics with Charisma: Archbishop Makarios III and the Cyprus Issue', by Christos Kassimeris & Andreas G. Philaretou, Cyprus
This theoretical analysis utilizes a social constructionist approach to delve into the social psychological dynamics characterizing the evolution of charismatic leadership as exemplified through the life and death of Archbishop Makarios III who served as both the Archbishop and president of the Republic of Cyprus from 1960 until his death in 1977. Makarios’ charisma inspired considerable loyalty and obedience from the majority of his Greek-Cypriot followers at times of crises before and after the island’s independence from British rule in the 1960’s. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide an understanding of the cross mixing of the macro historical, political, cultural, and societal influences and micro social psychological intricacies that have contributed to the branding of charismatic leadership to Makarios’ persona.
Keywords: Makarios – Cyprus – Charismatic authority – Charisma – Leadership – Greek Cypriots
'Islamophobia: Definitions, Diagnosis, and Solutions. A Comparative Empirical Study of American and European Students’ Attitudes and Opinions on Arabs/Islam Today', by Russell F. Farnen, USA
This study is concerned with answering the following basic questions:
• Is this conflict part of a clash of civilizations or between tradition and modernity?
• Islam - how do you define it and what forms does it take in the US, UK, and Netherlands? Our working definition agrees with the Dutch one but is a bit more elaborate. It refers to having negative attitudes and behaviors among non -Muslims and non-Arabs toward Muslims/Islam and/or Arabs/Middle Easterners.
• What do recent poll results in the US and other countries tell us about what the public thinks of Islam as well as what US Muslims think of the US, fellow Muslims, wars, the events of September 11, 2001, and current events?
• How do the US results from a recent university survey of 63 students compare with a recent Dutch study of Islam among four levels of high schoolers there? For example, the Dutch study found that 54 % of their students had negative views of Arabs/Islam while the US study found that 46% had a high/positive general feeling and 29% a low/negative feeling (with the rest answering do not know, no response, no opinion). Having Arabs as new neighbors had a negative, positive, neutral split of 32%, 35%, 33%, respectively. In grading religions, Islam got 53% positive, 27% neutral, and 21% negative scores.
• How do we interpret these results and what can done to alleviate such overall hostility toward Arabs and Islam?
• What can schools, parents, peers, religious institutions, and mass media do to relieve/offset Islamophobia’s most hateful aspects?
• What have we learned and what may we conclude from our researches?
Keywords: Islamaphobia – Europe – USA – hostility – students – civilization
'Stake in the political: Young people’s condition for political socialization in social media', by Erik Andersson, Sweden
This article concerns young people’s political acting on their own terms. With a broad understanding of the political life – the political – and a recognition of space and place as central aspects determining young people’s condition for political socialization, the use of stake in a political conversation between young people is analyzed as an approach to describe and discuss aspects of political socialization in a public room within the social media – the net community. The political conversation within the national net community is shown to be built up and maintained by certain discursive conditions and pressures determining the character of the conversation, as well as the conditions to which you are expected to conform as a participant within this place. The findings indicate that young people’s political conversation – their political acting – in social media could be a new form of political communication with its own unique characteristics, creating conditions for young people’s political socialization.
Key words: political socialization – the political – social media – space and place – stake
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